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Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after the severe damage it suffered in World War II, which left over 85% of its buildings in ruins.

It was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe.

; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.

The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.765 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union.

Warsaw flourished in the late 19th century under Mayor Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1875–92), a Russian-born general appointed by Tsar Alexander III.

Under Starynkiewicz Warsaw saw its first water and sewer systems designed and built by the English engineer William Lindley and his son, William Heerlein Lindley, as well as the expansion and modernisation of trams, street lighting, and gas infrastructure.

Once described as Paris of the East, Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II.

The German invasion in 1939, the massacre of the Jewish population and deportations to concentration camps led to the uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto in 1943 and to the major and devastating Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944.

The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.

Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St.

Piotrków, Adamów) while the -av- in the early name of Wrocław is part of a personal name.

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